What Can I Give?

It’s the start of another new school year, and this is a time, while although filled with anticipation and the urgency to get things ready, it is also a time of deep reflection as I look back and think about what I want to leave behind from the previous year and what I want to carry forward into this new school year. In my reflections I’ve been asking myself, “What can I give?” Last September, I was starting at a new school and the last year has been one filled with adjusting and learning (hence the lack of posts on this blog!). There were days where my confidence in myself was completely shaken, yet I still had to press on, because my very rational self knows that they only way to get through, is to keep moving forward. Now, as I begin my second year, I have that gift of hindsight that comes when you come out the other end –  I now know my colleagues and there is a wonderful comfort in returning to familiar faces, places and routines. It’s amazing what a difference a year can make and I am grateful for all that I learned in making this change. Throughout my career, I have had the opportunity to work in many different contexts, while also being able to maintain continuity through my work with supporting teachers and implementing curriculum. My teaching roles have ranged from K-10 including both classroom and specialist roles, I have been a curriculum coordinator for more than half of my career, I facilitate workshops for teachers through International Baccalaureate, I have been a vice-principal, and now I will have the opportunity to take on a partial role in the library. In short, I am a collector of educational experiences. In my deepest core, I know that each of these experiences has helped me to embrace change and ever-shifting paradigms, and they have ultimately shaped me as an educator as I continue to be challenged to grow and learn.

Over the years, I’ve had some conversations with colleagues that have left me feeling sad. Sometimes a colleague will share that they’ve given up – not on their students, but on the wider school (e.g. their colleagues, administrators, or all the change that happens). Somewhere along the way, their outlook shifted from one of giving to giving up. It is a sad, but true reality in our schools. A conversation like this can really bring you down, but you can’t let it keep you there. (I put on what I call my “iron panties” in these moments.) I listen with care to my colleague who is sharing and I offer support and encouragement, but ultimately, I can’t fix their problem, only they can. However, I can help them by giving my support and understanding – I believe it’s what’s guided my personal success over the years.

So, back to my reflection/question, “What can I give?” As I look forward to this new school year, here are some of the ways (not in rank order) I know I can give to my school:

To students, I can give…

  • my genuine care and personal attention
  • my best, most creative self (even if I am having a bad day)
  • my flexibility
  • my enthusiasm about what we are learning (even if it it’s not one on my favorite things)
  • my genuine support and encouragement by being their biggest cheerleader as they experience bumps on their road to success
  • my vulnerability by taking risks and letting them see me learn from mistakes
  • them honest feedback
  • my time
  • my gratitude for the privilege of sharing in their learning journey

To parents, I can give…

  • my time and attention
  • them an authentic ear
  • a thoughtful response instead of a reaction
  • honesty and respect
  • my partnership
  • my support and understanding when their child is experiencing challenges on their road to success
  • them my excitement and gratitude as I celebrate their child’s successes along with them

To colleagues, I can give…

  • honesty and respect
  • my care for them as people
  • my appreciation for their unique strengths, areas of expertise and passions
  • my support and encouragement in working through their challenges along side them
  • boundaries by not engaging in unhealthy thinking or dialogue
  • neutrality and objectivity
  • my sense of humor – everyday needs a little laughter!

It’s a simple truth, what goes around does ultimately come around. If we have a giving outlook instead of a getting one, that will come back to us ten fold. The more I give, the more I am gratified. So, I challenge you to ask yourselves, “what can I give?” and then start giving!  (Orginally posted at: http://www.piedpyper.wordpress.com)

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Developing Independence and Inquiry

It’s a new school year, and our family is in a new school. After being comfortable in our previous school for 6 years, we decided it was time to shake it up. From Japan to Bangladesh, here we are.

We expected the country to be different, and it is…completely. There’s a separate blog coming out all about the experience. Our new school, though, is a PYP-DP school, though, so same curriculum as my previous two schools.

I love the PYP. I’ve been teaching in the program for 8 years and like the philosophy. Throughout the years, I’ve seen students flourish in the educational setting. They are intrinsically motivated, curious, engaged, excited, thinkers and caring people. They are open to new challenges and people and want to help others and the world.

It’s not all the students that are like that, but it’s a majority of students I’ve worked with…at least the last 6 years.

This year’s kids are very typical 5th graders in many regards. They like to play video games and soccer/football. They like pop music, being with their friends, and they still like their family.

However, although it’s only been a few days, I notice a difference. These students feel as if they’ve always been directed. They are already asking me to solve small problems. Today, when given the task to think about what their classroom should look like, feel like and sound like, they quickly fell into silliness.

That quick lapse into complete silliness was yet another indicator that these kids haven’t been in charge of their own learning. It was too scary and a lot to ask. They’ve already told me about behavioral systems that were in place last year. Tidy tables got points that accumulated toward candy. Red, yellow and green cards marked students’ names depending on their behavior for that day. I cringe thinking about it, but I tell myself it’s a different place and culture.

Today students asked me to help them put their water bottle in their bags and to rescue a paper airplane from the top of the cabinets. A secondary student came to me at recess to tell me a 3rd grader had been picking on him. Students came in to the classroom and sat at their desks without much energy.

I had a lot of eye rolling today (in my head) and am settling in to the fact that these students will need encouragement to take charge of their own learning and their own selves. Although I think all schools should encourage students to take charge of their own learning, there is definite justification in a PYP school.

Here are some things I want to do to provoke independent thinking–some questions for the students:

  1. When they start to ask me what I want, I turn it around to always ask: What do you want?
  2. How can you solve it?
  3. When asked if it’s good enough..ask: What do you think?
  4. When there’s been a checklist of things to include, ask them about those things and have them point to examples of when they’ve done those things?
  5. Ask them about their classroom and what they want in the classroom?
  6. What are your strengths?
  7. What are your challenges?
  8. Ask them about how they want to organize their day?
  9. Reflect on each part of their learning and learn from that.
  10. And…questions, questions, questions…They’re asking. The teacher is not answering.

It’s going to be a long road with many of these students, but I feel excited to begin the journey. I think having some more independent thinkers around is a pretty important goal.

~First published on Solid Ground

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Negotiated Learning

This post is in response to a wonderful post by Derek Pinchbeck. He asked some thoughtful questions at the end and this is my way of trying to answer one of them. Cross posted at The Lead Learner.

How much choice do your students have about how and what they learn?

I like this question. When working within a system like PYP, sometimes I feel as if the UOI are too limiting. Then, we create a unit that really blows that idea out the door and lets kids explore and play and inquire.

EARLY LEARNING

SYSTEMS; How we organize ourselves
CENTRAL IDEA, Systems can make life more efficient
LINES OF INQUIRY; A system is a way of organizing (form, function), Systems can direct how we act and go places (connections)

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The animals got stuck in the vacuum of space and needed to be rescued by our brave astronauts

This unit was very broad and open. The knowledge and content was not dictated. It was driven by concepts. The teacher who was leading this class (the teacher is the Lead Learner of a collective) was open-minded and allowed the unit to flow with the children, rather than against them.

It ran for most of the year, along side another unit on CHANGE (which crossed over and linked many times, but that is another post). The kids started looking into class routines and how they were systems designed to make the classroom run more smoothly. They then applied these to the school at large. From there, they went out into the world. They looked at postal system, traffic, trains, buses (all locally connected to Kyoto and Japan). They inquired into gardening, sports, recycling. They ended up in space learning about the solar system, how the planets move, and what life on the international space station is like.

There were many more provocations and places where this unit went.

They created systems to play in (sharing routines, centers, etc). They pretended they were buses drivers and pasted bus stops all over the classroom (trains too). They were postal officers delivering mail. They went on a recycling spree and cleaned up the school, separating garbage into different types. They created a class garden with systems to care for plants. They looked into the human body and how it works. They turned their classroom into an international space station.

Literacy, math, art, science, etc… all weaved into this. Creating stories, writing letters, doing math in the garden, practicing fine motor skills, etc, etc, etc. Within this is choice, how the students are going to represent their learning, what they are going to do. Sometimes, the child gets to choose, other times they do not. There are skills to practice, and it is the teachers responsibility to provide a space for them to practice these skills. For the most part, students, even very young ones like these, can understand that learning these skills are an important part of their learning.

This unit was all based on the students interests. They noticed systems and named them, expressed their interest, and the teacher framed it into educational goals. We need to have students driving the bus (so to speak) and taking charge or their learning. We need to have the inquiry to be child-directed.

However, we also need the teacher to be framing this into the appropriate skills and curricular expectations. There is an article in The Hundred Languages of Children (Chapter 14, Negotiated Learning through Design, Documentation, and Discourse, Forman & Fyfe) which has been fundamental in the way we approach our Early Learning program.

THE CURRICULUM IS CHILD-ORIGINATED AND TEACHER FRAMED (pg 248, Forman & Fyfe)

Through the Design of the environment and the learning tasks, the Documentation of the learning that is happening, and the Discourse that the students (and teachers) are having, the teacher can frame and let the inquiry evolve.

Screenshot 2015-06-13 at 9.28.31 AM

I don’t use the word play as much as I used to. To me, it is inseparable from learning. However, it doesn’t mean that the teacher isn’t involved and the children are free to do what they wish. The teacher is very involved. The teacher listens, reacts, adapts, and then frames (or re-frames). We design learning engagements (taken right from the students discourse) that encourage discourse and then document the learning. This discourse creates newly designed provocations, which are in turn documented.

It is iterative and ever-evolving.

How much choice to students have? Well, choice is a simplistic word that does not represent the complexity of a classroom learning environment. Choice is negotiated, adapted, and re-framed.

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Do we have the confidence to allow students to be playful learners?

This post originally appeared on my own site http://www.thirstforthinking.org/thirst-for-thinking-blog.

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In his seminal work, Play of Man, (click on the link to download a free copy) written in 1901, Karl Groos proposed that there are certain universal types of play which all children engage in and which help children to grow into fully functioning and effective human beings.
Groos argued that whilst the exact form of the play is impacted by the culture around the child the categories of play cross cultures. So for example whilst play fighting occurs in all cultures playful sword fighting only occurs in cultures familiar with swords.

These categories of play are:

  1. Physical Play
  2. Language Play
  3. Exploratory Play
  4. Constructive Play
  5. Fantasy Play
  6. Social Play

These types of play do not exist in isolation and as Peter Gray points out in his thought provoking book Free to Learn ” A lively outdoor group game may be physical play, language play, exploratory play, constructive play, fantasy play, and social play all at once.” Gray goes on to make a definition of what play is and defines it in five ways:

  1. Play is self chosen and self directed
  2. Play is an activity in which means are more valued than ends
  3. Play has structure or rules that are not dictated by physical necessity but emanate from the minds of players
  4. Play is imaginative
  5. Play involves an active alert, but non-stressed frame of mindWhat leaps out to me about this list is that if we replaced the word play withlearning virtually all educators I know would agree whole heatedly that this was a wonderful list of what we seek to achieve in our classrooms.

Why is it then that so many schools are unable to build upon the natural playfulness of children and too often learning becomes:

  1. Entirely teacher directed
  2. Valued only as a means to achieve a grade or other external reward
  3. Has a structure and rules emanating from the minds of the teachers rather than the students
  4. Lacks imagination
  5. Involves passive students in a stressed frame of mind

I would not go as far as Gray does in his book in rejecting notions of traditional schooling, and would question whether the success he attributes to the alternative schooling system at Sudbury Valley, is not, in part, due to the Cultural Capital that the parents and students who go there possess.
I do however feel that all educators need to look reflectively at how we can promote a playful state of mind in our students. Why is it that so many students and adults alike view learning not as play but as work.
I would argue that often the reason we are unable to achieve this is that, whilst intellectually we may agree, on a core level many people do not accept Vygotsky‘s argument that , “A child’s greatest achievements are possible in play, achievements that tomorrow will become her basic level of real action.”
As adults we have to resist our impulses to intervene too early and allow children time to explore and play with ideas. Whilst observing closely and being supportive we need to trust that given this freedom children will push themselves to the limit of their ability.
Too often this lack of trust is obvious in the place where free play should be the most valued, the playground. In particular teachers concern about rough and tumble play where,“the roughness of play is perceived by teachers and playground supervisors as potential problems. However, the potential benefits, such as conflict resolution training and motor skills training, are overlooked by many teachers.” (On the Child’s Right to Play Fight), means that even in the playground play is heavily regulated.
Once in the classroom the time and space to play with objects and ideas is often limited or closely prescribed leaving students to feel that learning is something that is done to them not something they do.
Don’t get me wrong I am not arguing that teachers should not have a clear idea of where they will take student learning (see my previous post Four implications of structured inquiry). What I am arguing is that learning can be done most effectively if teachers have the confidence to give the students increased ownership over their learning and time to play with ideas without fear of the final product being ‘wrong’. In this way students will be empowered to go above and beyond the intended learning of the teacher and really reach their maximum level of achievement.
Whilst important things like high stakes external exams do place limitations on how far this can be achieved, hopefully the playful mindedness questions below will help you reflect upon this in your classroom, whatever age of student you teach.
I’d love to hear back from you whether they have enabled you to move learning in a more playful direction or whether you have other questions to provoke playful learning.

  1. How do I let my students know that I have confidence in them as self motivated learners?
  2. How much choice do your students have about how and what they learn?
  3. Is the learning space your classroom or the students classroom?
  4. How much input do students have in setting up the rules and norms of the classroom?
  5. Is there time and space for students to ‘play’ with objects or ideas?
  6. How is it clear that imagination and creativity is valued?
  7. Which word do I use most in class ‘play’ or ‘work’?

If we could all make our classrooms a little more playful I think we can move closer to having the happy motivated learners we all desire.

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The Things I think about when I Differentiate

I recently posted this entry in my blog Ser y Estar at http://rafangel.wordpress.com

Many good and tough experiences with differentiation have made me realize that differentiation is not something that we must do because some students need help, or because some students are more able to carry out certain kinds of tasks. We differentiate because learning happens in different manners; because the route to get to it is more stimulating when we are touched by differences; because when we become aware of the warning bells that signal opportunities to conduct different explorations, we can experience creativity and curiosity flow through our veins.

The differentiated classroom is defined and described in many ways, but I could just simply say that it is the environment that recognizes teachers and students as a human beings. Basically my conception means that both of them share the credit for learning successes and the responsibilities for the difficult paths that need to be walked to experience with new ideas.

The classroom is a place where any learning and thinking individual should feel different, for it is the kitchen where good ideas are being cooked; it is the lab where new formulas are being tested; it is the playground where we are allowed to be playful with tools, before we put them to practice in the real world. So, what do I think about when I differentiate? Like any kind of reflection, there is a prior, during and post differentiation stage.

The stage prior to differentiating feels like a roller coaster: it has its ups and downs; it is filled with excitement and anticipation; grains of anxiety could be experienced; but I enjoy the readiness for doing in my fingers; the voices in my head that prompt me with ideas and dangers; the electric sensation that is produced when creating something that will help. There are times when I feel like Ironman or like a great X-Men with awesome skills. Many times I am unafraid, but there are times when I also feel nervous about new things that I am willing to try.

The stage during differentiation defines challenge in every way. This stage forces me to act as a shape-shifter; I need to be whoever students need me to be, since the questions that are asked pursue different kind of knowledge and because each student is operating in a different level of learning. The layers of learning in this stage are simply extraordinary: I need to find ways to stay engaged with the connections students are making, while being observant of what students have to say about the conceptual knowledge that is unwrapped. It is part of my job to remain curious about the learning that is constantly evolving in the classroom, understanding that I need to be willing and ready to let students do the talking and the thinking. This stage is exhausting, but the feeling I experience is the substance dreams are made of.

After differentiation a moment of silence is required; I need to make room for digesting the experience; I need to listen to the voices in my head again. The questions they now pose have to do with the way I operated in the narrative of the class that was just delivered; they ask me how I will talk about learning with students; they ask me to look at how this experience fits in the whole architecture of my teaching and, most importantly, they encourage me to plan the next best thing. And yes, I understand that after each success or struggle, I will have to plan a next best thing.

After a differentiated class, I need to start working on generating a new universe of work. This is normally best done with a good cup of coffee or tea, or with the joy of dialogue with some of my colleagues. This is the stage where I reaffirm to myself that teaching includes the demonstration of the skills we foster and aim to develop in students; that students’ thirst for knowledge activate creativity instincts in teachers and we must, therefore, create environments where this happen. When my attempts did not work as planned, I can feel a maelstrom in my skill toolbox, I can feel the noise; I can sense the silent encouragement; I can touch the texture of my thirst for resource-exploration and problem solving; and I can hear the voices of the dialogues that will follow the next best thing, when students and I celebrate that we have made it.

I differentiate, therefore I learn; and I am convinced that it is part of my job to sail the waves of creativity to generate the environment where students can tell the difference between my teaching style and others’.

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Is this a habitat in which inquiry can thrive? Questions and warning bells for the inquiry classroom

I posted this on my blog http://justwonderingblog.com/ a few weeks ago and have had some lively conversations and reflections as a result.  Posting here in the hope that it may spark similar conversations amongst inquiry teachers…

I was reading an interesting post from @langwitches in which she refers to @brholland’s slideshow from a recent ASCD conference. In true domino style, Beth’s post got Sylvia thinking and blogging and Sylivia’s post got me thinking and blogging! The issue being explored by these two educators was around what we are ‘looking for’ when we walk into a learning space/classroom. Beth raised a number of key questions that we can ask to help reflect more closely on the effective use of technologies. The post and slideshow are great…as is Sylvia’s sketched response to it.  You can find them here: http://langwitches.org/blog/2015/04/09/used-effectively-or-simply-used/

As readers of this blog know, I pretty much obsess over all things inquiry. So of course, this got me thinking about the questions that roll around in my head when I enter a classroom. Most of the time, I am looking through an inquiry lens … looking for connections between what I see (and hear) going on and inquiry learning/ teaching.   I am lucky. I get to walk into many, many different classrooms in many different places and I am often intrigued by the things that signal ‘inquiry’ to me and, equally, by the things that, well…don’t.  So I am wondering: what questions do I ask?

Below are some that come to mind. Brainstorming this list has been a useful exercise in considering what might count as ‘evidence’ of inquiry – albeit in a ‘snapshot’ visit to a classroom. Obviously, one needs to spend more than a lesson in a classroom to really get a feel for the kind of learning habitat it creates BUT, Here’s my list anyway…I would love you to add to it!

  • Are (thoughtful, connected) questions being asked by students?
  • Are students’ questions visible and valued in the learning space?
  • Are students ‘doing the learning’ rather than having the learning ‘done to them’?
  • Are students doing the cognitive ‘heavy lifting’ or is the teacher doing all the hard thinking work?!
  • Are students collaborating – teaching and learning with each other?
  •  Is there movement? Are students free to move around the learning space? Is there flexibility and fluidity here?
  • Is the teacher moving around, interacting, observing (as opposed to standing and delivering)
  •  Is technology being used as a means to an end – to gather, sort and share learning?
  •  Can I see how this learning moment is part of a ‘bigger picture’ as opposed to being a fragmented/one-off activity?
  •  Do the students know why they are doing what they are doing? Is the teacher transparent in her/his discourse?
  • Is there a sense of curiosity/wonder/intrigue/anticipation?
  • Is the communication between the people in the space (teachers and learners alike) respectful and warm?
  •  Are the teachers excited/curious/engaged/energized?
  •  Is there some laughter? (the good kind)
  •  Does the physical/visual environment tell me something about the learning in this space? Can I connect with a narrative of inquiry? Are students using the visual environment to support them as independent learners?
  • Can the students talk with me about their learning? Can they articulate not just what they are doing and why but HOW they are learning and why?
  • Does this space make ME curious/engaged/intrigued? Does it invite me to want to learn, to be here, to participate, to investigate?

And, while I am at it, I also got to thinking about the things that act as ‘warning bells’ …. Perhaps a sign that a classroom might not be the best habitat for inquiry learning. It can concern me when I see/hear…

  • Each child doing the same thing, the same way at the same time.
  • Total, sustained silence.
  • A noise level that makes it difficult for me to have a one-one conversation with a student
  • Teachers doing much more talking than students
  • Learning products on display (art work, worksheets, etc) that ALL LOOK MORE OR LESS EXACTLY THE SAME (yep – it still happens)
  • Tables in rows
  • NO space for students to gather in a circle/group (no ‘campfire’ gathering space)
  • No spaces that allow students to retreat and be in their ‘own’ space
  • The teacher at the desk.
  • A teacher’s desk.
  • Mess. Just plain old, can’t–be-bothered mess. Not the glorious creative chaos that comes with many inquiry experiences but just mess. Sorry…but inquiry requires organization, management a respect for the learning environment. Beauty, even. And yes. I have a thing about that.
  • The interactive whiteboard being used as a chalkboard with buttons.
  • No evidence of any use of digital technologies.
  • Worksheets.
  • Bright, beautiful, laminated things on walls but NO artifacts that share students’ learning
  • Lots of commercially produced posters (even if they say good things, if that’s all that’s on the walls it makes me suspicious)
  • No evidence of what the students are inquiring into. The classroom should tell that story in some way.
  • Kids checking in with the teacher about everything…’Can I? Is it OK if? What do I do now? I don’t get how to…’
  • Kids that can’t tell me why they are doing what they are doing
  • Teachers raising their voice. A lot.

What questions would you add to those we might ask ourselves/others when looking at classrooms through an inquiry lens?   And what are your warning bells?

 ….just wondering….

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Learning & Play: Ten ways to interact with children in play  

Originally posted at teachingparadox.com

As I prepare to re-enter the classroom next year, I have been reading up on all things PLAY. We will be diving head first into a play based curriculum that is clearly defined and structured. It is exciting/inspiring. One of my questions is; how do we, as adults and teachers, interact with children while they play?

Here are ten strategies for interacting with children’s play to guide them to higher levels of thinking and complexity.

TEN WAYS TO INTERACT WITH CHILDREN IN PLAY

Narrate

Follow them around as they play. Point out basic observations. State the obvious. Acknowledge the choices they are making, bring those choices to the forefront of their mind. Observe. Tell the story as it happens.

“I see you are making a house”
“You’re pulling the wagon over to the water tap”
You’re digging a deep hole”

Encourage

Mention what they have done, and point out the effort it took to do it. As Dweck would say, don’t praise the child, but the effort.
“You are following your plan very closely”
“You made a really long bridge, it must have been difficult to make it balance”
“You observed very closely and drew lots of details”.

Feedback

Focus on specifics, the small details where you see growth. This will bring their attention to these details and cause them to have a quick reflection on your statements. Open a space for a conversation about specific skills.
“You’re using a lot more colors than yesterday”
“Your clay model is standing because you made the legs thicker.”

Model

Bring yourself into the play by discussing your own difficulties, or your own approach to problem solving. Share strategies that are useful to you. Ask them to try and see if they are effective.
“When I can’t think of what to draw I take a walk to clear my head”
“Sometimes when I am angry, I like to sit by myself”

Show (or Tell)

Sometimes there is a correct way to do something, and the child simply needs to be shown the method. We often feel children need to figure out everything by themselves, but it is just as effective to show them how, in real time, and have them copy you. Or other times, they might not know the problem and even after questioning they don’t see the solution. Don’t be afraid to tell.
“Take clay roll it with the palm or your hand”
“Hold the brush like this”
“To unscrew the lid, hold it with one hand, and then with other turn it this way”
“I think the bottom is too thin, that’s why the tower is falling down”

Question

Provoke their thinking. Ask them specific questions to get them reflecting on what they are doing at a higher level. Encourage them to take their wondering to new levels. Key concepts are a good lens to use to focus their questions. Listen to their observations and their forming theories, then question.
“What would happen of we mixed it with water?”
“What other tools does a carpenter use?”
“Why does the shadow keep moving across the floor?”

Challenge

Different from questions, this is a call to do something. It asks them to manipulate the materials they are using in a different way that pushes them further, focusing on specific skills.
“Can you use all the blocks?”
“Can you make a list of all the items in your shop?
“I wonder if you could make this map go all the way to the edge of the page?”

Join

Lose yourself in the play. Join the scene. Become a character. Help build something. Be a child.

Inform

Fill in gaps in their knowledge. If you see them acting out a role, but missing a key element of that role, fill in the blank for them. Provide vocabulary that enriches the play. Inform them of past experiences and situations they have experienced.
“That tool you are using is called is a spatula”
“After the doctor helps the patient, they go to the recovery room”
“Do you remember when we met the Aikido-sensei? He said they always bow before a match”

Limit

Tell them what they can or cannot do. Play is not always about student choice. An element of student choice is involved, but the teacher sets constraints. Constraints lead to creative thinking. These constraints are carefully chosen to allow space for exploration emerge.
“You can only use three colors”
“That area is closed today”
“Let’s pretend we are forest animals”

Learning to play is a recursive process that is always changing. We need to be mindful of our own practice. No top ten list will supply the magic formula (though it may give us a framework to think and reflect).

There are many more verbs to add to this list (and in many ways these verbs cross over with each other). Be mindful of when you are using them, and be mindful of why.

Inspired by:
Gaye Gronlund – Developmentally Appropriate Play
Playing With Children: Should you? If so, How?
Play with Children

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